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Lighting units and efficiency
Dear All,

We have two questions regarding modelling lighting in TIMES Starter.

1. We are a bit uncertain about the unit of lighting demand. Demand in the DEM file in the B-Y calibration data worksheet is indicated as being in bn-lum-yr, which is an activity unit. However, the formula in the relevant cells refers to useful energy in the calibration sheet, which is in bn-lum, a capacity unit. Is this a correct way of interpreting the file? 

2. A related point to the above: We have been trying to interpret the EFF parameter value for lighting in the RSD file. The heading states that the unit is PJ/PJ but this seems wrong as the numbers in some cases are above 100%. We assume that the correct unit is bn-lm/PJ, this would also make sense in terms of what we know about the efficiency of different lighting technologies. If this is the case, we are wondering why the RSD file does not use CEFF-I instead of EFF to define lighting efficiency.

Fanni and Agnes
I'll leave it to Gary to answer 1), but concerning the efficiencies (EFF), for output-normalized technologies they are efficiencies from the inputs to the activity (defining how many units of activity are produced by one unit of input), and so the unit of EFF depends on the corresponding units of the inputs and the activity. If your input unit is PJ and the activity unit is bn-lum-yr, the unit of EFF will thus be bn-lum-yr / PJ, no matter what the heading states (however, I am not seeing PJ/PJ in the RSD file EFF heading).

Concerning the last part, "why the RSD file does not use CEFF-I instead of EFF to define lighting efficiency", I don't fully understand the question.  As the lighting technologies are output-normalized (PCG = output), EFF represents the efficiency from the inputs to the activity, as described above. The VEDA shortcut CEFF-I refers to a commodity-specific efficiency defined on a specific input commodity, and so it represents exactly the same relation as EFF, when you have only a single input.

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